Selective HIF2A Inhibitors in the Management of Clear Cell Renal Cancer and Von Hippel–Lindau-Disease-Associated Tumors
Von Hippel–Lindau (VHL) loss is the hallmark event characterizing the clear cell renal cancer subtype (ccRCC). Carriers of germinal VHL mutations have an increased prevalence of kidney cysts and ccRCC as well as hemangioblastoma, pheochromocytoma and pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. In both sporadic and inherited ccRCC, the primary mechanism of VHL-mediated carcinogenesis is the abnormal stabilization of hypoxia-inducible factors (HIF1A and HIF2A). While HIF1A acts as a tumor suppressor and is frequently lost through inactivating mutations/14q chromosome deletions, HIF2A acts as an oncogene promoting the expression of its target genes (VEGF, PDGF, CAIX Oct4, among others). Selective HIF2a inhibitors block the heterodimerization between HIF2A and ARNT, stopping HIF2A-induced transcription. Several HIF2A inhibitors have entered clinical trials, where they have shown a favorable toxicity profile, characterized by anemia, fatigue and edema and promising activity in heavily pretreated ccRCC patients. Belzutifan, a second-generation HIF2a inhibitor, was the first to receive FDA approval for the treatment of unresectable ccRCC in VHL syndrome. In this review, we recapitulate the rationale for HIF2a blockade in ccRCC, summarize the development of HIF2a inhibitors from preclinical models up to its introduction to the clinic with emphasis on Belzutifan, and discuss their role in VHL disease management.
Belzutifan; Clear cell renal cancer; Kidney cancer
Suárez C, Vieito M, Valdivia A, González M, Carles J. Selective HIF2A Inhibitors in the Management of Clear Cell Renal Cancer and Von Hippel–Lindau-Disease-Associated Tumors. Med Sci (Basel). 2023 Jun 30;11(3):46.
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