Preclinical carotid atherosclerosis in patients with latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA), type 2 diabetes and classical type 1 diabetes
BACKGROUND LADA is probably the most prevalent form of autoimmune diabetes. Nevertheless, there are few data about cardiovascular disease in this group of patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of carotid atherosclerotic plaques in patients with LADA as compared with patients with classic type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes. METHODS Patients with LADA were matched for age and gender in different proportions to patients with type 2 diabetes, and classic type 1 diabetes. None of the patients had clinical cardiovascular disease. All subjects underwent B-mode carotid ultrasound to detect atheroma plaques. Demographics were obtained from all subjects. RESULTS We included 71 patients with LADA, 191 patients with type 2 diabetes and 116 patients with type 1 diabetes. Carotid atherosclerosis was more frequent in patients with LADA compared with type 2 diabetes (73.2% vs. 56.9%, P = 0.0018) and classic type 1 diabetes (57.1%, P = 0.026); these changes occurred despite healthier macrovascular risk profiles in the former. Age (P < 0.001), smoking (P = 0.003) and hypertension (P = 0.019) were independently associated with carotid atherosclerosis. Multiple plaques were also more frequent in patients with LADA as compared with classic type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes (45.1% and 33.6% vs. 27.2%, respectively, P = 0.022). The frequency of carotid plaques increased with increasing diabetes duration in LADA patients compared with type 2 diabetes (85.7% vs. 58.8%, inverse OR 5.72 [1.5-21.8]; P = 0.009). CONCLUSIONS LADA patients do not present with less carotid atherosclerosis than patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Their macrovascular risk occurs despite a healthier macrovascular risk profile than those patients with type 2 diabetes.
Atherosclerosis; LADA; Type 1 diabetes; Type 2 diabetes
Hernández M, López C, Real J, Valls J, Ortega-Martinez de Victoria E, Vázquez F, et al. Preclinical carotid atherosclerosis in patients with latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA), type 2 diabetes and classical type 1 diabetes. Cardiovasc Diabetol. England; 2017 Dec 28;16(1):94.doi: 10.1186/s12933-017-0576-9
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