BACKGROUND The cardiovascular risk of obesity is potentially increased by arterial stiffness. OBJECTIVE To assess the relationship of adiposity measures with arterial stiffness in Caucasian adults with intermediate cardiovascular risk. SETTING Six Spanish health centres. PARTICIPANTS We enrolled 2354 adults (age range, 35-74 years; mean age, 61.4±7.7 years, 61.9% male). METHODS This is a cross-sectional study that analyses data from the baseline visit of the improving interMediAte RisK management (MARK) study. The main outcome variables were body mass index (BMI), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), Clínica Universidad de Navarra-body adiposity estimation (CUN-BAE) body fat percentage and body roundness index (BRI). Vascular function was assessed by the cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI) with the VaSera device; brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) was determined using a validated equation. RESULTS The mean adiposity measures were a BMI of 29.2±4.4, WHtR of 0.61±0.07, CUN-BAE of 35.7±1.7 and BRI of 5.8±1.7. The mean stiffness measures were a CAVI of 8.8±1.2 and baPWV of 14.9±2.5. In multiple linear regression analyses, all adiposity measures were negatively associated with CAVI and baPWV (p<0.01 for all) after adjustment for possible factors of confusion. The proportion of CAVI variability via the adiposity measures were 5.5% for BMI, 5.8% for CUN-BAE, 3.8% for WHtR and 3.7% for BRI. These were higher among diabetic, obese, younger (≤62 years) and non-hypertensive subjects who had similar activity and sedentary profiles. CONCLUSIONS Adiposity measures are negatively associated with arterial stiffness measures. The percentage of variation in CAVI explained by its relation to the different measures of adiposity ranges from 5.8% (CUN-BAE) to 3.7% (BRI). In the case of baPWV, it oscillates between 0.7% (CUN-BAE and BMI) and 0.1% (WHtR). TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER NCT01428934.
Arterial stiffness; Body mass index; waist-to-height ratio
Gómez-Sánchez L, García-Ortiz L, Patino-Alonso MC, Recio-Rodríguez JI, Rigo F, Martí R, et al. Adiposity measures and arterial stiffness in primary care: the MARK prospective observational study. BMJ Open. 2017 Sep 27;7(9):e016422.doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2017-016422
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