Management and outcome of pregnancies in women with red cell isoimmunization: a 15-year observational study from a tertiary care university hospital
Background: The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of the different anti-erythrocytic alloantibodies, to describe pregnancy outcomes according to a low-risk and high-risk classification for fetal anemia and to determine the factors that influence adverse perinatal outcomes. Methods: This retrospective observational study included women referred to our center following the identification of maternal anti-erythrocytic alloantibodies between 2002 and 2017. Pregnancies were classified as high risk for fetal anemia in cases with clinically significant antibodies, no fetal-maternal compatibility and titers ≥1:16 or any titration in cases of Kell system incompatibility. In high-risk pregnancies, maternal antibody titration and the fetal middle cerebral artery peak systolic velocity (MCA-PSV) were monitored. Low-risk pregnancies underwent routine pregnancy follow-up. Results: Maternal antibodies were found in 337 pregnancies, and 259 (76.9%) of these antibodies were clinically significant. The most frequent antibodies were anti-D (53%) and anti-K (19%). One hundred forty-three pregnancies were classified as low risk for fetal anemia, 65 (25%) cases were classified as no fetal-maternal incompatibility, 78 had clinically nonsignificant antibodies, 4 (2.8%) resulted in first-trimester pregnancy loss, and 139 (97.2%) resulted in livebirths. Of the 194 high-risk pregnancies, 38 had titers < 1:16 (resulting in 38 livebirths), and 156 had titers ≥1:16 or anti-K antibodies. In the last group, 6 cases miscarried before 18 weeks, 93 had a MCA-PSV < 1.5 multiples of the median (MoM), resulting in 3 perinatal deaths that were unrelated to fetal anemia, one termination and 89 livebirths; and 57 had a MCA-PSV > 1.5 MoM, resulting in 3 intrauterine deaths, 6 terminations and 48 livebirths. Ninety-two intrauterine transfusions were performed in 45 fetuses (87% anti-D). Adverse outcomes were related to a MCA-PSV > 1.5 MoM (p < 0.001), hydrops (p < 0.001) and early gestational age at first transfusion (p = 0.029) Conclusion: Anti-D remains the most common antibody in fetuses requiring intrauterine transfusion. A low or high-risk classification for fetal anemia based on the type of antibody, paternal phenotype and fetal antigen allows follow-up of the pregnancy accordingly, with good perinatal outcomes in the low-risk group. In the high-risk group, adverse perinatal outcomes are related to high MCA-PSV, hydrops and early gestational age at first transfusion.
Isoimmunization; Newborn hemolytic disease; Intrauterine transfusion
Sánchez-Durán MA, Higueras MT, Halajdian-Madrid C, Avilés García M, Bernabeu-García A, Maiz N, et al. Management and outcome of pregnancies in women with red cell isoimmunization: a 15-year observational study from a tertiary care university hospital. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2019 Oct 15;19:356.
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