Sleep apnea, a condition that modifies sleep and circadian rhythms, is highly prevalent in patients with diabetes. However, it is not known if there is an association between sleep apnea, circadian alterations and glycemic regulation in this type of patient. Here, a polysomnographic study was carried out on 21 women and 25 men (mean age = 64.3 ± 1.46 years) with diagnoses of type 2 diabetes to detect the presence of sleep apnea. Moreover, patients wore an actigraph and a temperature sensor on the wrist for one week, to study the manifestation of the circadian rhythms. The correlations of circadian and polysomnographic variables with the severity of apnea, measured by the apnea-hypopnea index, and with glycemic dysregulation, measured by the percentage of glycated hemoglobin, were analyzed. The mean apnea-hypoapnea index of all the participants was 39.6 ± 4.3. Apnea-hypoapnea index correlated with % N1, negatively with % N3, and also the stability of the active circadian rhythm. However, no significant correlation was found between the apnea-hypopnea index and wrist temperature rhythm and glycated hemoglobin. Glycated hemoglobin levels were negatively associated with the percentage of variance explained by the wrist temperature circadian rhythm (calculated via 24 and 12 h rhythms). This association was independent of body mass index and was strongest in patients with severe apnea. In conclusion, patients with diabetes showed altered circadian rhythms associated with a poor glycemic control and this association could partially be related to the coexistence of sleep apnea.
Apnea-hypoapnea index; Circadian; Glycated hemoglobin
Cambras T, Romero O, Díez-Noguera A, Lecube A, Sampol G. Circadian Patterns of Patients with Type 2 Diabetes and Obstructive Sleep Apnea. J Clin Med. 2021 Jan 11;10(2):244.
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