Hepatocellular carcinoma with tumor thrombus extends to the right atrium and portal vein: a case report
BACKGROUND Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most important primary malignant liver disease. A large proportion of patients with advanced HCC have macrovascular invasion. HCC tends to infiltrate vascular structures, particularly the portal vein and its branches, and more rarely, the hepatic veins. The intravascular tumor thrombus can affect the inferior vena cava (IVC) or even the right atrium (RA), the latter having a poor prognosis. CASE SUMMARY HCC is one of the most aggressive malignant tumors. Tumor thrombus (TT) formation in advanced HCC stages is common and usually involves the hepatic or portal veins. Herein, we report a 69-year-old woman who presented with dyspnea to the emergency department. A ventilation/perfusion lung scan was performed, ruling out pulmonary embolism. Hepatopulmonary syndrome and portopulmonary hypertension were discarded with contrasted echocardiography, but a mass in the RA was detected and confirmed by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. Abdominal computed tomography showed a liver mass with a dynamic enhancement pattern compatible with HCC and an intraluminal IVC mass extending from the hepatic vein into the RA. HCC with TT expansion to IVC and RA is rare and indicates poor prognosis. CONCLUSION HCC with TT expansion to IVC and RA is rare and indicates poor prognosis. There is no consensus about anticoagulation or other interventions in these patients. Gomez-Puerto D, Mirallas O, Vidal-González J, Vargas V. Hepatocellular carcinoma with tumor thrombus extends to the right atrium and portal vein: A case report. World J Hepatol 2020; 12(11): 1128-1135 [PMID: 33312435 DOI: 10.4254/wjh.v12.i11.1128]
Alpha-fetoprotein; Hepatocellular carcinoma; Tumor thrombus
Gomez-Puerto D, Mirallas O, Vidal-González J, Vargas V. Hepatocellular carcinoma with tumor thrombus extends to the right atrium and portal vein: a case report. World J Hepatol. 2020 Nov 27;12(11):1128–35.
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