Diagnosis and treatment of Chiari malformation type 1 in children: the International Consensus Document
Background Chiari malformation type 1 (CM1) is a rare condition where agreed classification and treatment are still missing. The goal of this study is to achieve a consensus on the diagnosis and treatment of CM1 in children. Methods A multidisciplinary panel formulated 57 provisional statements based on a review of the literature. Thirty-four international experts (IE) participated in a Delphi study by independently rating each statement on a 4-point Likert scale (“strongly disagree,” “disagree,” “agree,” “strongly agree”). Statements that were endorsed (“agree” or “strongly agree”) by < 75% of raters were re-formulated, or new statements were added, and another Delphi round followed (up to a maximum of three). Results Thirty-five IE were contacted and 34 agreed to participate. A consensus was reached on 30/57 statements (52.6%) after round 1. Three statements were added, and one removed. After round 2, agreement was reached on 56/59 statements (94.9%). Finally, after round 3, which took place during the 2019 Chiari Consensus Conference (Milan, Italy), agreement was reached on 58/59 statements (98.3%) about four main sections (Definition and Classification, Planning, Surgery, Isolated Syringomyelia). Only one statement did not gain a consensus, which is the “definition of radiological failure 24 month post-surgery.” Conclusions The consensus document consists of 58 statements (24 on diagnosis, 34 on treatment), serving clinicians and researchers following children with CM1. There is a clear need for establishing an international network and registry and to promote collaborative studies to increase the evidence base and optimize the long-term care of this patient population.
Chiari 1 malformation; Children; Syringomyelia
Massimi L, Peretta P, Erbetta A, Solari A, Farinotti M, Ciaramitaro P, et al. Diagnosis and treatment of Chiari malformation type 1 in children: the International Consensus Document. Neurol Sci. 2022 Feb;43:1311–1326.
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