Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis of Blood-based Liquid Biopsies to Inform Clinical Decision-making in Prostate Cancer
Context Genomic stratification can impact prostate cancer (PC) care through diagnostic, prognostic, and predictive biomarkers that aid in clinical decision-making. The temporal and spatial genomic heterogeneity of PC together with the challenges of acquiring metastatic tissue biopsies hinder implementation of tissue-based molecular profiling in routine clinical practice. Blood-based liquid biopsies are an attractive, minimally invasive alternative. Objective To review the clinical value of blood-based liquid biopsy assays in PC and identify potential applications to accelerate the development of precision medicine. Evidence acquisition A systematic review of PubMed/MEDLINE was performed to identify relevant literature on blood-based circulating tumor cells (CTCs), circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA), and extracellular vesicles (EVs) in PC. Evidence synthesis Liquid biopsy has emerged as a practical tool to profile tumor dynamics over time, elucidating features that evolve (genome, epigenome, transcriptome, and proteome) with tumor progression. Liquid biopsy tests encompass analysis of DNA, RNA, and proteins that can be detected in CTCs, ctDNA, or EVs. Blood-based liquid biopsies have demonstrated promise in the context of localized tumors (diagnostic signatures, risk stratification, and disease monitoring) and advanced disease (response/resistance biomarkers and prognostic markers). Conclusions Liquid biopsies have value as a source of prognostic, predictive, and response biomarkers in PC. Most clinical applications have been developed in the advanced metastatic setting, where CTC and ctDNA yields are significantly higher. However, standardization of assays and analytical/clinical validation is necessary prior to clinical implementation.
Circulating tumor DNA; Precision medicine; Prostate cancer
Casanova-Salas I, Athie A, Boutros PC, Del Re M, Miyamoto DT, Pienta KJ, et al. Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis of Blood-based Liquid Biopsies to Inform Clinical Decision-making in Prostate Cancer. Eur Urol. 2021 Jun;79(6):762-771.
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