Gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) represents a paradigm for clinically effective targeted inhibition of oncogenic driver mutations in cancer. Five drugs are currently positioned as the standard of care for the treatment of advanced or metastatic GIST patients. This is the result of continuous, deep understanding of KIT and PDGFRA GIST oncogenic drivers as well as the resistance mechanisms associated to tumor progression. However, the complexity of GIST molecular heterogeneity is an evolving field, and critical questions remain open. Specifically, the clinical benefit of approved and/or investigated targeted agents is strikingly modest at advanced stages of the disease when compared with the activity of first-line imatinib. Ripretinib is a novel switch-pocket inhibitor with broad activity against KIT and PDGFRA oncoproteins and has recently demonstrated antitumoral activity across phase I to phase III clinical trials. Therefore, ripretinib has emerged as a new standard of care for advanced, multi-resistant GIST patients. Based on this data, the Food and Drug Administration has granted in 2020 the approval of ripretinib for GIST patients after progression to imatinib, sunitinib and regorafenib. This, in turn, constitutes a major breakthrough in sarcoma drug development, as there have not been new treatment approvals in GIST for nearly a decade. Herein, we provide a critical review on the preclinical and clinical development of ripretinib in GIST. Furthermore, we seek to assess the biological and clinical impact of this new standard of care on the course of the disease, aiming to provide an insight on future treatments strategies for the next coming years.
Ripretinib; Sarcoma; Tyrosine kinase inhibitor
Lostes-Bardaji MJ, García-Illescas D, Valverde C, Serrano C. Ripretinib in gastrointestinal stromal tumor: the long-awaited step forward. Ther Adv Med Oncol. 2021 Jan;13:1-12.
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