Introduction Aggressive parenteral nutrition with delivery of high amino acid and energy doses is used to improve growth and neurodevelopmental outcomes in very low birth weight (VLBW) preterm infants. Recent findings, however, suggest that this approach may cause electrolyte imbalances. The aim of our study was to compare the prevalence of hypercalcaemia, hypophosphataemia, and hypokalaemia in 2 groups of preterm infants that received parenteral nutrition with different amounts of amino acids and to analyse perinatal and nutritional variables associated with the development of electrolyte imbalances. Methods We conducted a retrospective observational study comparing 2 groups of preterm infants born before 33 weeks’ gestation with birth weights of less than 1500 g managed with parenteral nutrition. One of the groups received less than 3 g/kg/day of amino acids and the other received 3 g/kg//day of amino acids or more. We analysed the prevalence of electrolyte imbalances and possible associations with aggressive parenteral nutrition, adjusting for potential confounders. Results We studied 114 infants: 60 given less than 3 g/kg/day of amino acids (low-intake group) and 54 given at least 3 g/kg/day (high-intake group). The prevalence of electrolyte imbalances was similar in both groups. The prevalence of hypercalcaemia was 1.67% in the low-intake group and 1.85% in the high-intake group (P > .99), the prevalence of severe hypophosphataemia 11.7% vs 9.3%, and the prevalence of hypokalaemia 15.0% vs 11.1% (P > .99). A calcium to phosphorus ratio greater than 1.05 had a protective effect against hypophosphataemia (P = .007). Conclusions We did not find an association between hypercalcaemia, hypophosphataemia, and hypokalaemia and the amino acid dose delivered by PN in the high-intake group of preterm infants.
preterm infants; Hypercalcaemia; Hypophosphataemia
Parramón-Teixidó CJ, Gómez-Ganda L, Garcia-Palop B, Linés-Palazón M, Blanco-Grau A, Montoro-Ronsano JB, et al. The influence of parenteral protein intake on electrolyte disturbances in premature infants. An Pediatría. 2021 Sep;95(3):139–46.
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