A multicenter case–control study of the effect of e-nos VNTR polymorphism on upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage in NSAID users
Bleeding in non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) users limited their prescription. This first multicenter full case–control study (325 cases and 744 controls), explored the association of e-NOS intron 4 variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) polymorphism with upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage (UGIH) in NSAID exposed and unexposed populations and assessed any interaction between this polymorphism and NSAIDs. NSAID users carrying e-NOS intron 4 wild type genotype or VNTR polymorphism have higher odds of UGIH than those unexposed to NSAIDs [Odds Ratio (OR): 6.62 (95% Confidence Interval (CI): 4.24, 10.36) and OR: 5.41 (95% CI 2.62, 11.51), respectively], with no effect modification from VNTR polymorphism-NSAIDs interaction [Relative Excess Risk due to Interaction (RERI): −1.35 (95% CI −5.73, 3.03); Synergism Index (S): 0.77 (95% CI 0.31, 1.94)]. Similar findings were obtained for aspirin exposure. Non-aspirin NSAID users who carry e-NOS intron 4 VNTR polymorphism have lower odds of UGIH [OR: 4.02 (95% CI 1.85, 8.75) than those users with wild type genotype [OR: 6.52 (95% CI 4.09, 10.38)]; though the interaction estimates are not statistically significant [RERI: −2.68 (95% CI −6.67, 1.31); S: 0.53 (95% CI 0.18, 1.55)]. This exploratory study suggests that the odds of UGIH in NSAID or aspirin users does not modify according to patient´s e-NOS intron 4 genotype.
Mallah N, Zapata-Cachafeiro M, Aguirre C, Ibarra-García E, Palacios-Zabalza I, Macías García F, et al. A multicenter case–control study of the effect of e-nos VNTR polymorphism on upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage in NSAID users. Sci Rep. 2021 Oct 7;11:19923.
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