Diabetic Retinopathy and Skin Tissue Advanced Glycation End Products Are Biomarkers of Cardiovascular Events in Type 2 Diabetic Patients
Risk of cardiovascular events is not homogeneous in subjects with type 2 diabetes; therefore, its early identification remains a challenge to be met. The aim of this study is to evaluate whether the presence of diabetic retinopathy and accumulation of advanced glycation end-products in subcutaneous tissue can help identify patients at high risk of cardiovascular events. For this purpose, we conducted a prospective study (mean follow-up: 4.35 years) comprising 200 subjects with type 2 diabetes with no history of clinical cardiovascular disease and 60 non-diabetic controls matched by age and sex. The primary outcome was defined as the composite of myocardial infarction, coronary revascularization, stroke, lower limb amputation or cardiovascular death. The Cox proportional hazard multiple regression analysis was used to determine the independent predictors of cardiovascular events. The patients with type 2 diabetes had significantly more cardiovascular events than the non-diabetic subjects. Apart from the classic factors such as age, sex and coronary artery calcium score, we observed that the diabetic retinopathy and advanced glycation end-products in subcutaneous tissue were independent predictors of cardiovascular events. We conclude that the diabetic retinopathy and advanced glycation end-products in subcutaneous tissue could be useful biomarkers for selecting type 2 diabetic patients in whom the screening for cardiovascular disease should be prioritized, thereby creating more personalized and cost-effective medicine.
Cardiovascular disease biomarkers; Diabetic complications; Type 2 diabetes
Planas A, Simó-Servat O, Hernández C, Ortiz-Zúñiga Á, Marsal JR, Herance JR, et al. Diabetic Retinopathy and Skin Tissue Advanced Glycation End Products Are Biomarkers of Cardiovascular Events in Type 2 Diabetic Patients. J Pers Med. 2021 Dec;11(12):1344.
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