The reduction-oxidation (redox) system consists of the coupling and coordination of various electron gradients that are generated thanks to serial reduction-oxidation enzymatic reactions. These reactions happen in every cell and produce radical oxidants that can be mainly classified into reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS). ROS and RNS modulate cell-signaling pathways and cellular processes fundamental to normal cell function. However, overproduction of oxidative species can lead to oxidative stress (OS) that is pathological. Oxidative stress is a main contributor to diabetic kidney disease (DKD) onset. In the kidney, the proximal tubular cells require a high energy supply to reabsorb proteins, metabolites, ions, and water. In a diabetic milieu, glucose-induced toxicity promotes oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction, impairing tubular function. Increased glucose level in urine and ROS enhance the activity of sodium/glucose co-transporter type 2 (SGLT2), which in turn exacerbates OS. SGLT2 inhibitors have demonstrated clear cardiovascular benefits in DKD which may be in part ascribed to the generation of a beneficial equilibrium between oxidant and antioxidant mechanisms.
Diabetic kidney disease; Mitochondrial dysfunction; Oxidative stress
Llorens-Cebrià C, Molina-Van den Bosch M, Vergara A, Jacobs-Cachá C, Soler MJ. Antioxidant Roles of SGLT2 Inhibitors in the Kidney. Biomolecules. 2022 Jan 16;12(1):143.
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