Background Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) accounts for 10–20% of all breast cancers (BCs). It is more commonly diagnosed in younger women and often has a less favorable prognosis compared with other BC subtypes. Objective The objective of this study was to provide a literature-based extensive overview of the economic and humanistic burden of TNBC to assist medical decisions for healthcare payers, providers, and patients. Methods A systematic literature review was performed using multiple databases, including EMBASE, MEDLINE, Econlit, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, from database inception to 16 May 2021. In addition, a targeted search was performed in the Northern Light Life Sciences Conference Abstracts database from 2016 through June 2021. The bibliographies of included articles were reviewed to identify other potentially relevant publications. Quality assessment of the included studies was conducted. Results The review identified 19 studies assessing the economic burden and 10 studies assessing the humanistic burden of TNBC. Studies varied widely in study design, settings, patient populations, and time horizons. The estimates of mean per-patient annual direct medical costs ranged from around $20,000 to over $100,000 in stage I–III TNBC and from $100,000 to $300,000 in stage IV TNBC. Healthcare costs and resource utilization increased significantly with disease recurrence, progression, and increased cancer stage or line of therapy. Compared with the costs of systemic anticancer therapy, cancer management costs comprised a larger portion of total direct costs. The estimates of indirect costs due to productivity loss ranged from $207 to $1573 per patient per month (all costs presented above were adjusted to 2021 US dollars). Cancer recurrence led to significantly reduced productivity and greater rates of leaving the workforce. A rapid deterioration of health utility associated with disease progression was observed in TNBC patients. Treatment with pembrolizumab or talazoparib showed significantly greater improvements in health-related quality of life (HRQoL) compared with chemotherapy, as measured by EORTC QLQ-C30, QLQ-BR23, and FACT-B. Conclusion TNBC is associated with a substantial economic burden on healthcare systems and societies and considerably reduced productivity and HRQoL for patients. This study synthesized the published literature on the economic and humanistic burden of TNBC and highlighted the need for continued research due to the rapidly changing landscape of TNBC care.
Triple-Negative Breast Cancer; Economic burden
Huang M, Haiderali A, Fox GE, Frederickson A, Cortes J, Fasching PA, et al. Economic and Humanistic Burden of Triple-Negative Breast Cancer: A Systematic Literature Review. Pharmacoeconomics. 2022 May;40:519–58.
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