A New MAMLD1 Variant in an Infant With Microphallus and Hypospadias With Hormonal Pattern Suggesting Partial Hypogonadotropic Hypogonadism—Case Report
MAMLD1 (X chromosome) is one of the recognized genes related to different sex development. It is expressed in testis and ovaries and seems to be involved in fetal sex development and in adult reproductive function, including testosterone biosynthesis. However, its exact role remains unclear. Over 40 genetic variants have been described, mainly in male individuals and mostly associated with hypospadias. Although MAMLD1 has been shown to regulate the expression of the steroidogenic pathway, patients with MAMLD1 variants mostly show normal gonadal function and normal testosterone levels. Here we describe a patient (46,XY) with hypospadias and microphallus, with low testosterone and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) levels, and with inappropriately low values of luteinizing hormone (LH) during minipuberty. This hormonal pattern was suggestive of partial hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. A stimulation test with hCG (4 months) showed no significant increase in both testosterone and dihydrotestosterone concentrations. At 5 months of age, he was treated with intramuscular testosterone, and the penis length increased to 3.5 cm. The treatment was stopped at 6 months of age. Our gonadal function massive-sequencing panel detected a previously unreported nonsense variant in the MAMLD1 gene (c.1738C>T:p.Gln580Ter), which was classified as pathogenic. This MAMLD1 variant, predicting a truncated protein, could explain his genital phenotype. His hormonal profile (low testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, and LH concentrations) together with no significant increase of testosterone and DHT plasma concentrations (hCG test) highlight the potential role of this gene in the biosynthesis of testosterone during the fetal stage and minipuberty of the infant. Besides this, the LH values may suggest an involvement of MAMLD1 in the LH axis or a possible oligogenesis. It is the first time that a decrease in DHT has been described in a patient with an abnormal MAMLD1.
MAMLD1 gene; Hypospadias; Minipuberty
Yeste D, Aguilar-Riera C, Canestrino G, Fernández-Alvarez P, Clemente M, Camats-Tarruella N. A New MAMLD1 Variant in an Infant With Microphallus and Hypospadias With Hormonal Pattern Suggesting Partial Hypogonadotropic Hypogonadism—Case Report. Front Endocrinol. 2022 Jun 28;13:884107.
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