HER2 Copy Number and Resistance Mechanisms in Patients with HER2-positive Advanced Gastric Cancer Receiving Initial Trastuzumab-based Therapy in JACOB Trial
Purpose: In JACOB trial, pertuzumab added to trastuzumab-chemotherapy did not significantly improve survival of patients with HER2-positive metastatic gastric cancer, despite 3.3 months increase versus placebo. HER2 copy-number variation (CNV) and AMNESIA panel encompassing primary resistance alterations (KRAS/PIK3CA/MET mutations, KRAS/EGFR/MET amplifications) may improve patients’ selection for HER2 inhibition. Experimental Design: In a post hoc analysis of JACOB on 327 samples successfully sequenced by next-generation sequencing (NGS; Oncomine Focus DNA), HER2 CNV, HER2 expression by IHC, and AMNESIA were correlated with overall response rate (ORR), progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS) by univariable/multivariable models. Results: Median HER2 CNV was 4.7 (interquartile range, 2.2–16.9). HER2 CNV-high versus low using the median as cutoff was associated with longer median PFS (10.5 vs. 6.4 months; HR = 0.48; 95% confidence interval: 0.38–0.62; P < 0.001) and OS (20.3 vs. 13.0 months; HR = 0.54; 0.42–0.72; P < 0.001). Combining HER2 CNV and IHC improved discriminative ability, with better outcomes restricted to HER2-high/HER2 3+ subgroup. AMNESIA positivity was found in 51 (16%), with unadjusted HR = 1.35 (0.98–1.86) for PFS; 1.43 (1.00–2.03) for OS. In multivariable models, only HER2 CNV status remained significant for PFS (P < 0.001) and OS (P = 0.004). Higher ORR was significantly associated with IHC 3+ [61% vs. 34% in 2+; OR = 3.11 (1.89–5.17)] and HER2-high [59% vs. 43% in HER2-low; OR = 1.84 (1.16–2.94)], with highest OR in the top CNV quartile. These biomarkers were not associated with treatment effect of pertuzumab. Conclusions: HER2 CNV-high assessed by NGS may be associated with better ORR, PFS, and OS in a JACOB subgroup, especially if combined with HER2 3+. The negative prognostic role of AMNESIA requires further clinical validation.
Resistance mechanisms; Advanced gastric cancer; Trastuzumab
Pietrantonio F, Manca P, Bellomo SE, Corso S, Raimondi A, Berrino E, et al. HER2 copy number and resistance mechanisms in patients with HER2-positive advanced gastric cancer receiving initial trastuzumab-based therapy in JACOB trial. Clin Cancer Res. 2023 Feb 1;29(3):571–80.
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