Introduction The prevalence of malnutrition among infants with congenital heart disease (CHD) is high. Early nutritional assessment and intervention contribute significantly to its treatment and improve outcomes. Our objective was to develop a consensus document for the nutritional assessment and management of infants with CHD. Material and methods We employed a modified Delphi technique. Based on the literature and clinical experience, a scientific committee prepared a list of statements that addressed the referral to paediatric nutrition units (PNUs), assessment, and nutritional management of infants with CHD. Specialists in paediatric cardiology and paediatric gastroenterology and nutrition evaluated the questionnaire in 2 rounds. Results Thirty-two specialists participated. After two evaluation rounds, a consensus was reached for 150 out of 185 items (81%). Cardiac pathologies associated with a low and high nutritional risk and associated cardiac or extracardiac factors that carry a high nutritional risk were identified. The committee developed recommendations for assessment and follow-up by nutrition units and for the calculation of nutritional requirements, the type of nutrition and the route of administration. Particular attention was devoted to the need for intensive nutrition therapy in the preoperative period, the follow-up by the PNU during the postoperative period of patients who required preoperative nutritional care, and reassessment by the cardiologist in the case nutrition goals are not achieved. Conclusions These recommendations can be helpful for the early detection and referral of vulnerable patients, their evaluation and nutritional management and improving the prognosis of their CHD.
Congenital heart defects; Nutrition therapy; Delphi technique
Centeno-Malfaz F, Moráis-López A, Caro-Barri A, Peña-Quintana L, Gil-Villanueva N, Redecillas-Ferreiro S, et al. Nutrition in congenital heart disease: consensus document. An Pediatr (Engl Ed). 2023 May;98(5):373–83.
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