Impact of Early Non-Invasive Ventilation in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: A multicenter Randomized Controlled Trial
Background and objective: Forced vital capacity (FVC) less than 50% of predicted is one of the main parameters used for Non-Invasive Ventilation (NIV) initiation in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS). Recent studies suggest that higher values of FVC could be considered as a threshold. The aim of this study is to evaluate whether early use of NIV improves the prognosis of ALS patients compared with standard initiation. Methods: This is a randomized, parallel, multicenter, open-label, controlled clinical trial, with recruitment at the ALS outpatient multidisciplinary units of six Spanish hospitals. Patients were included when their FVC reached the 75% threshold and were randomized by computer, stratifying by center in an allocation ratio of 1:1 to Early NIV (FVC below 75%) or Standard NIV (FVC below 50%) initiation. The primary outcome was time to death or tracheostomy. Trial registration number ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01641965. Results: Between May 2012 and June 2014, 42 patients were randomized to two groups, 20 to Early NIV and 22 to Standard NIV initiation. We found differences in survival in favor of the intervention group: an incidence of mortality (2.68 [1.87–5.50] vs. 3.33 [1.34–4.80] person-months) and a median survival (25.2 vs. 19.4 months), although without reaching statistical significance (p = 0.267). Conclusions: This trial did not reach the primary endpoint of survival; nevertheless, it is the first Randomized Controlled Trial (RCT) to demonstrate the benefits of early NIV in slowing the decline of respiratory muscle strength and reducing adverse events. Although not all the results reached statistical significance, all the analyzed data favor early NIV. In addition, this study demonstrates good tolerance and compliance with early NIV without quality of sleep impairment. These data reinforce the early respiratory evaluation of ALS patients and NIV initiation with an FVC of around 75%.
Respiratory complications; Respiratory insufficiency; Survival
Sarasate M, González N, Córdoba-Izquierdo A, Prats E, Rodriguez Gonzalez-Moro JM, Martí S, et al. Impact of Early Non-Invasive Ventilation in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: A multicenter Randomized Controlled Trial. J Neuromuscul Dis. 2023;10(4):627–37.
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