Estimated Prevalence and Number of PiMZ Genotypes of Alpha-1 Antitrypsin in Seventy-Four Countries Worldwide
Background: The α-1 antitrypsin (AAT) protease inhibitor PiMZ is a moderately deficient genotype, until recently considered of little or negligible risk. However, a growing number of studies show that MZ carriers have an increased risk of developing lung and liver diseases, if exposed to smoking or other airborne or industrial pollutants, and hepatotoxic substances. Methods: We used the epidemiological studies performed to determine the frequencies of PiM and PiZ worldwide, based on the following criteria: 1) samples representative of the general population; 2) AAT phenotyping or genotyping characterized by adequate methods, including isoelectric focusing and polymerase chain reaction; and 3) studies with reliable results assessed with a coefficient of variation calculated from the sample size and 95% confidence intervals, to measure the precision of the results in terms of dispersion of the data around the mean. Results: The present review reveals an impressive number of MZs of more than 35 million in 74 countries of the world with available data. Seventy-five percent of them are people of Caucasian European heritage, mostly living in Europe, America, Australia and New Zealand. Twenty percent of the remaining MZs live in Asia, with the highest concentrations in the Middle East, Eastern¸ Southern, and South-eastern regions of the Asian continent. The remaining five percent are Africans residing in Western and Eastern Africa. Conclusion: Considering the high rate of smoking, the outdoor and the indoor air pollution from solid fuels used in cooking and heating, and the exposure to industrial dusts and chemicals in many of these countries, these figures are very worrying, and hence the importance of adequately assessing MZ subjects, recommending them rigorous preventive measures based on the adoption of healthy lifestyles, including avoidance of smoking and alcohol.
Genotype; Tobacco smoking; α1-antitrypsin
Martinez-González C, Blanco I, Diego I, Bueno P, Miravitlles M. Estimated Prevalence and Number of PiMZ Genotypes of Alpha-1 Antitrypsin in Seventy-Four Countries Worldwide. Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis. 2021 Sep 17;16:2617–30.
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