Role of autoantibodies in the diagnosis and prognosis of interstitial lung disease in autoimmune rheumatic disorders
Interstitial lung disease (ILD) has been recognized as a frequent manifestation associated with a substantial morbidity and mortality burden in patients with autoimmune rheumatic disorders. Serum autoantibodies are considered good biomarkers for identifying several subsets or specific phenotypes of ILD involvement in these patients. This review features the role of several autoantibodies as a diagnostic and prognostic biomarker linked to the presence ILD and specific ILD phenotypes in autoimmune rheumatic disorders. The case of the diverse antisynthetase antibodies in the antisynthease syndrome or the anti-melanoma differentiation-associated 5 protein (MDA5) antibodies as a marker of a severe condition such as rapidly progressive ILD in patients with clinically amyopathic dermatomyositis are some of the associations herein reported in the group of myositis spectrum disorders. Specific autoantibodies such as the well-known anti-topoisomerase I (anti-Scl70) or the anti-Th/To, anti-U11/U12 ribonucleoprotein, and anti-eukaryotic initiation factor 2B (eIF2B) antibodies seems to be specifically linked to ILD in patients with systemic sclerosis. Overlap syndromes between systemic sclerosis and myositis, also have good ILD biomarkers, which are the anti-PM/Scl and anti-Ku autoantibodies. Lastly, other not so often reported disorders as being associated with ILD but recently most recognized as is the case of rheumatoid arthritis associated ILD or entities herein included in the miscellaneous disorders section, which include anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated interstitial lung disease, Sjögren’s syndrome or the mixed connective tissue disease, are also discussed.
Autoantibodies; Autoimmune rheumatic disorders; Interstitial lung disease
Kuwana M, Gil-Vila A, Selva-O’Callaghan A. Role of autoantibodies in the diagnosis and prognosis of interstitial lung disease in autoimmune rheumatic disorders. Ther Adv Musculoskelet Dis. 2021 Jan 1;13:1–17.
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