Background: Epidemiologic studies have reported that the geographical distribution of the prevalence of allelic variants of serine protein inhibitor-A1 (SERPINA1) and severe cases of COVID-19 were similar. Methods: A multicenter, cross-sectional, observational study to evaluate the frequency of alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (AATD) in patients with COVID-19 and whether it was associated with having suffered severe COVID-19. Results: 2022 patients who had laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. Mutations associated with AATD were more frequent in severe COVID versus non-severe (23% vs. 18.8%, p = 0.022). The frequency of Pi*Z was 37.8/1000 in severe COVID versus 17.5/1000 in non-severe, p = 0.001. Having an A1AT level below 116 was more frequent in severe COVID versus non-severe (29.5% vs. 23.1, p = 0.003). Factors associated with a higher likelihood of severe COVID-19 were being male, older, smoking, age-associated comorbidities, and having an A1AT level below 116 mg/dL [OR 1.398, p = 0.003], and a variant of the SERPINA1 gene that could affect A1AT protein [OR 1.294, p = 0.022]. Conclusions: These observations suggest that patients with AATD should be considered at a higher risk of developing severe COVID-19. Further studies are needed on the role of A1AT in the prognosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection and its possible therapeutic role.
Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency; Genetic mutations; Severe COVID-19
Rodríguez Hermosa JL, Vargas Centanaro G, González Castro ME, Miravitlles M, Lázaro-Asegurado L, Jiménez-Rodríguez BM, et al. Severe COVID-19 Illness and α1-Antitrypsin Deficiency: COVID-AATD Study. Biomedicines. 2023 Feb 10;11(2):516.
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