There is currently an urgent need to find new strategies to tackle antimicrobial resistance and biofilm-related infections. This study has two aims. First, we evaluated the in vitro efficacy of hyperthermia in preventing biofilm formation on the surfaces of polyvinyl chloride discs. Second, we assessed the in vivo efficacy of hyperthermia in preventing biofilm formation in endotracheal tubes (ETTs) of a rabbit model. For the in vitro studies, nine clinical extensively drug-resistant/multidrug-resistant Gram-negative isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and three clinical methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains were studied. For biofilm formation, an adhesion step of 30 or 90 min followed by a growth step of 24 h were performed with application of one, two, and three pulses at 42°C for 15 min each pulse after the adhesion step. For the in vivo studies, New Zealand rabbits were intubated with ETTs previously colonized with K. pneumoniae or P. aeruginosa strains, and three pulses at 42°C for 15 min were applied after the adhesion step. The application of three pulses at 42°C for 15 min each pulse was needed to achieve the prevention of the in vitro biofilm formation of 100% of the tested strains. The application of heat pulses in a rabbit intubation model led to biofilm prevention of 85% against two K. pneumoniae strains and 80% against two P. aeruginosa strains compared to the control group. Hyperthermia application through pulses at 42°C could be a new nonantibiotic strategy to prevent biofilm formation in ETTs. IMPORTANCE Biofilm-producing microorganisms are considered medically crucial since they cause 80% of the infections that occur in the human body. Medical devices such as endotracheal tubes (ETTs) can act as a reservoir for pathogens providing the surface to which microorganisms can adhere and cause biofilm-associated infections in critically ill patients. This biofilm has been related with the development of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), with an incidence of 8 to 28%, a mortality rate up to 17% and its associated high extra costs. Although some VAP-preventive measures have been reported, they have not demonstrated a significant reduction of VAP incidence. Therefore, we present a new nonantibiotic strategy based on hyperthermia application to prevent biofilm formation inside ETTs. This technology could reduce VAP incidence, intubation duration, hospital and intensive care unit (ICU) length stays, and mortality rates. Consequently, this could decrease the antibiotics administered and influence the impact of antibiotic resistance in the ICU.
Animal model; Biofilm; Hyperthermia
Marta P, Estela M, Nieves L, Xavier G, Ester M, Oscar L, et al. Hyperthermia Prevents In Vitro and In Vivo Biofilm Formation on Endotracheal Tubes. Microbiol Spectr. 2023 Feb;11(1):e02807-22.
Use this identifier for quote and/or link this documenthttps://hdl.handle.net/11351/9387
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