Durvalumab plus tremelimumab for the treatment of advanced neuroendocrine neoplasms of gastroenteropancreatic and lung origin
Single immune checkpoint blockade in advanced neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs) shows limited efficacy; dual checkpoint blockade may improve treatment activity. Dune (NCT03095274) is a non-randomized controlled multicohort phase II clinical trial evaluating durvalumab plus tremelimumab activity and safety in advanced NENs. This study included 123 patients presenting between 2017 and 2019 with typical/atypical lung carcinoids (Cohort 1), G1/2 gastrointestinal (Cohort 2), G1/2 pancreatic (Cohort 3) and G3 gastroenteropancreatic (GEP) (Cohort 4) NENs; who progressed to standard therapies. Patients received 1500 mg durvalumab and 75 mg tremelimumab for up to 13 and 4 cycles (every 4 weeks), respectively. The primary objective was the 9-month clinical benefit rate (CBR) for cohorts 1-3 and 9-month overall survival (OS) rate for Cohort 4. Secondary endpoints included objective response rate, duration of response, progression-free survival according to irRECIST, overall survival, and safety. Correlation of PD-L1 expression with efficacy was exploratory. The 9-month CBR was 25.9%/35.5%/25% for Cohorts 1, 2, and 3 respectively. The 9-month OS rate for Cohort 4 was 36.1%, surpassing the futility threshold. Benefit in Cohort 4 was observed regardless of differentiation and Ki67 levels. PD-L1 combined scores did not correlate with treatment activity. Safety profile was consistent with that of prior studies. In conclusion, durvalumab plus tremelimumab is safe in NENs and shows modest survival benefit in G3 GEP-NENs; with one-third of these patients experiencing a prolonged OS.
Cancer immunotherapy; Neuroendocrine cancer; Tumour immunology
Capdevila J, Hernando J, Teule A, Lopez C, Garcia-Carbonero R, Benavent M, et al. Durvalumab plus tremelimumab for the treatment of advanced neuroendocrine neoplasms of gastroenteropancreatic and lung origin. Nat Commun. 2023 May 23;14:2973.
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