Eosinophils in the Gastrointestinal Tract: Key Contributors to Neuro-Immune Crosstalk and Potential Implications in Disorders of Brain-Gut Interaction
Eosinophils are innate immune granulocytes actively involved in defensive responses and in local and systemic inflammatory processes. Beyond these effector roles, eosinophils are fundamental to maintaining homeostasis in the tissues they reside. Gastrointestinal eosinophils modulate barrier function and mucosal immunity and promote tissue development through their direct communication with almost every cellular component. This is possible thanks to the variety of receptors they express and the bioactive molecules they store and release, including cytotoxic proteins, cytokines, growth factors, and neuropeptides and neurotrophines. A growing body of evidence points to the eosinophil as a key neuro-immune player in the regulation of gastrointestinal function, with potential implications in pathophysiological processes. Eosinophil–neuron interactions are facilitated by chemotaxis and adhesion molecules, and the mediators released may have excitatory or inhibitory effects on each cell type, with physiological consequences dependent on the type of innervation involved. Of special interest are the disorders of the brain–gut interaction (DBGIs), mainly functional dyspepsia (FD) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), in which mucosal eosinophilia and eosinophil activation have been identified. In this review, we summarize the main roles of gastrointestinal eosinophils in supporting gut homeostasis and the evidence available on eosinophil–neuron interactions to bring new insights that support the fundamental role of this neuro-immune crosstalk in maintaining gut health and contributing to the pathophysiology of DBGIs.
Disorders of brain-gut interaction; Intestinal eosinophils; Neuro-immune interaction
Salvo-Romero E, Rodiño-Janeiro BK, Albert-Bayo M, Lobo B, Santos J, Farré R, et al. Eosinophils in the Gastrointestinal Tract: Key Contributors to Neuro-Immune Crosstalk and Potential Implications in Disorders of Brain-Gut Interaction. Cells. 2022 May;11(10):1644.
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